Nusa Penida is an island southeast of Indonesia‘s island Bali and a district of Klungkung Regency that includes the neighbouring small island of Nusa Lembongan. The Badung Strait separates the island and Bali. The interior of Nusa Penida is hilly with a maximum altitude of 524 metres. It is drier than the nearby island of Bali. There is very little tourist infrastructure.
There are two small islands nearby – Nusa Lembongan and Nusa Ceningan – which are included within the district (kecamatan). Administratively, the kecamatan of the same name, had a population of 45,178 in 2010 census, covering 202.8 km2, very little changed from 10 years prior.
Nusa Penida, and neighboring Lembongan and Ceningan islands, are a bird sanctuary. The island communities have used traditional Balinese village regulations to create the sanctuary. The idea of a sanctuary came from the Friends of the National Parks Foundation (FNPF).
In 2006 all 35 villages (now 41 villages) agreed to make bird protection part of their traditional regulations (“awig-awig”). Since then, the FNPF has rehabilitated and released various Indonesian birds, most notably the critically endangered Bali starling which is endemic to Bali but whose numbers in the wild had declined to less than 10 in 2005. After a two-year program by FNPF in which 64 cage bred birds were rehabilitated and released onto Nusa Penida, their number had increased to over 100 in 2009. Other released birds include the Java sparrow, Mitchell’s lorikeet and sulphur crested cockatoo.
Nusa Penida covers a wide area of diving locations, including Penida Bay, Batu Lumbung (Manta Point), Batu Meling, Batu Abah, Toya Pakeh and Malibu Point. The flow through the Lombok Strait is, overall, south-tending, although the strength and direction of the tidal streams are influenced by the monsoon seasons.
During the southeast monsoons, the tidal flow tends south; during the northeast monsoons, the tidal flow tends north. In the area of the strait north of Nusa Penida, the pattern is relatively simple, with a flow, at peaktide, of about three-and-one-half knots. Tidal streams in Badung Strait are semi-diurnal, but the character of the stream is very complicated because its direction runs obliquely to the general south to north direction of Lombok Strait, and the channel has a curved shape.
Based on survey in 2009, there was about 1,419 hectares coral sites with 66 percent covered the sites in 3 meters depth and 74 percent covered the sites in 10 meters depth.